Introduction to Brahma Sutrani - 2|
Brahmasutra consists of 4 chapters (Adhyaaya). Each adhyaaya is sub-divided into 4
sections (paada). There are 16 paadas totally and each paada is sub-divided according to
subject matter (Adhikaranam). There are totally 191 adhikaranams. They are not uniform and
differ from paada to paada. All topics are collected from Vedanta, especially the 10
Upanishads. Each adhikaranam is sub-divided into various sutraani. There are 555 Sutrani
totally.The topics discussed in these adhyaayas can be broadly classified into four
Adhyaaya I ( Samanvaya Adhyaaya ) - Samanvaya meaning consistency, is a technical word
occurring in Memamsa Shastram. In the entire first adhyaaya Vyasacharya presents Samanvaya
as a proof to establish that Brahman is the central theme of the Upanishads in contrast to
the other systems of philosophy that propound Karma (Action) as the central theme.
Adhyaaya II ( Avirodha Adhyaaya) - Avirodha can be translated as non-contradiction.
Here, Vyasa establishes that Brahmavidya is free from all contradictions. He establishes
- The different statements of the Shruti do not contradict each other.
- The statements of the Smritis are consistent with those of the Shruti.
- The statements of the Shruti are not against logic (Yukti).
Vyasa refutes the Naastika Darshanams also and shows the presence of logical
contradictions in other darshanams.
Adhyaaya III (Sadhana Adhyaya) - All sadhanas, the preparatory disciplines or means for
gaining Brahmavidya are discussed.
Adhyaaya IV (Phala Adhyaya) - It deals with the fruit (phalam) of Brahmavidya that is
Definitions of the following are necessary for better understanding.
Sutra literally means thread.
The following sanskrit verse defines a sutra
Alpaaksharamasamdigdhe saaravat vishvatomukham, Asto Bhamanavadhyam ca sutram sutra
A sutram should be.
- Convey the essence of an Upanishadic Statement
- Multi-faceted. (if possible)
- Without glorifications
- Faultless (There should be no defects in the words and meanings).
The Brahmasutra serves as a thread to the Upanishadic ideas which are like beeds.
Vaakyaihi sutra anusaribhihi sva padaani ca varnyante, Bhashyam bhasha vido vidu:
A Bhashyam (commentary) explains every word in the same order as it occurs in the sutra,
and elucidates technical words in the Bhashyam.
Vishayo samshayashcaiva poorva pakshastathontaram. Sangatishceti panchaagam
It consists of 5 factors.
- Vishaya , subject matter (generally taken from Upanishads).
- Samshaya, Doubts in a particular Upanishadic statement are presented but what is evident
need not be enquired into.
- Poorva Paksha, Views of the non-vedantins with their reasons.
- Siddhanta, Vedantic conclusion which is established after refuting all possible
objections. It logically refutes others views and logically established the statement.
- Sangati, Connection between two topics.
Brahmasutra is a NYAYA PRASTHAANA which uses Nyaya or Reasoning to establish the
A discusion on Anumanam follows...