Introduction to Brahma Sutrani - 7|
Adhyasa Bhashyam (contd.)
Shankara defends the possibility of Adhyasa by giving some more reasons:
- Adhyaasa is based on Veda Pramanam. Adhyaasa is not derived from snake-rope example but
from Veda. The snake-rope example is given only to show some corollories of adhyaasa.
- This adhyaasa should not be questioned by other philosophers as they themselves have
accepted this adhyaasa without being aware of it. They talk about Atma as eternal and
accept the karma kanda. They also accept that Atma refers to 'I' the Self, which is
eternal based on Veda Pramanam. Stating that "I am a human being" is an error.
- They should neither question the atma-anatma adhyaasa because they have already accepted
the atma sthoola shareera adhyaaasa. The similarity between atma and sthoola shareeram
cannot be talked about which fails to fulfill their own condition of saadrishyam. They
still accept, based on shruti that Atma is not the body.
From the Shruti statement we
know that atma is eternal and from our own experience we know that anatma is mortal. Thus,
atma is different from anatma. Still adhyaasa is taking place based on the shruti
pramanam. The laukika condition should not be taken while talking about atma-anatma
adhyaasa as it is based on shruti pramanam.
- Similarly, the rope-snake example also cannot be questioned by other systems because
that adhyaasa is experienced by us and not proved logically. Khyati Vaadah: Each
philosopher explains differently how the rope-snake adhyaasa takes place.
- Thus, the controversy is only with regard to the extent of adhyaasa which takes place.
Therefore, we find that the adhyaasa is possible.
ADHYAASA PRAMANAM: It is a proof which shows the existence of adhyaasa. It is based on
Shruti statement classified into two:
1. ARTHAAPATHI PRAMANAM: an idea which is postulated to explain a proven fact. Through
this the karta (doer) and the bhokta(experiencer) are proved as adhyaasa.
Eg: When in the morning we see the roads flooded, then it is postulated that at night it
had rained. The process of postulation is called Arthapathi jnanam and the knowledge
derived from such postulation is called prama. It is pratyaksha based arthapathi pramanam
and these ideas are based on shruti hence called shrutyarthapathi pramanam.
The other conclusions based on arthapathi:
(a) Naiyayikas say atma is karta and the Sankhyas are of the view that atma is bhokta.
In contrast to these views the Shruti says
'NA VIJAANEETO NAAYAM HANTI NA HANYATE'. Therefore, the doer and the bhokta are
super-impositions on atma.
(b) I am (pramata) the knower, is super-imposed on atma. Atma is knowledge and not the
'NANTAH PRAGNYAM NA BHAHISH PRAGNYAM NA PRAGNYAANA GHANAM...' atma is not waker, dreamer
or sleeper but the non-knowing witness consciousness.
(c) Atma is nirvikarah, not subject to any modifications.
(d) If atma is karta, bhokta, pramata then it requires an association with an
instrument(karanam or pramanam).Hence the Atma will necessarily have to be Sasangah but
the Shruti says:
ASANGOHI AYAM PURUSHAH'. Atma is asangah (not associated with anything).
(e) Paricchinnatvam or limitation is also an error. Shruti says:
Kathopanishad: ATMA APARICHEDAH ANADI ANANTAM. Atma is aparicchinam (limitless).
(f) Anekatvam (plurality) is also an error. Swetaswatara Upanishad: 'EKO BHOOTAH SARVA
BHOOTESHU ROODAH...' The non-dual Atma appears as many.
2. ANUMAANA PRAMANAM: Inference is based on vyaapti (co-existence of two things).
YATRA YATRA VYAVAHAARATVAM TATRA TATRA ADHYAASATVAM.
Adhyaasa is harmful to the entire humanity as it brings mortality which is the cause of
constant fear of death, insecurity etc,.
Adhyaasa eva samsaarasya kaaranam: The adhyaasa leads to karma, which gives
punyam and paapam leading to birth-death cycle. This adhyasa is removed only by knowledge.
Vedanta is the only science which questions the very jeevatma and helps to negate the
super-imposed low self image.
The first sutra is explained in the next session.