Introduction to Brahma Sutrani - 8|
The first chapter of the Brahma Sutra is called SAMANVAYA ADHYAAYA. The main purport of
this chapter is to establish that Brahman is the central theme of all Upanishads. This
chapter is divided into four padas or sections. The first pada is called SPASHTHA BRAHMA
LINGA VAAKYA SAMANVAYA. The first topic or adhikaranam in this section is titled JIGNYASA
The method of teaching of the adopted here is:
- Saamaanya vicarah: general analysis of the adhikaranam.
- Shabda vicarah: analysis of each word.
- Upasamharah: Conclusion including general remarks, technical points, corollories etc,.
The first sutra is :
Athaato Brahma Jignyasa
The first adhikaranam has only one sutra and the name of the adhikaranam is based on
the first sutra. The first sutra forms as a preface and an (upotghata) intoduction to
vedanta shastram. It acts as a pre-appendix.
Traditionally it is said that an introduction to any shastra should have four factors:
- Adhikari - An adhikari or a competent student should be sadhana catushta sampannah.
- Vishaya - Atmanah Brahmatvam is the subject matter of the Vedanta shastram.
- Prayojanam - The benefit of the study is that My real nature is known.
- Sambandhah - Relationship.
We will now discuss each one of these topics in detail.
- Adhikaari (Competency of the student): There are four fold qualifications for a student
- Viveka (Discrimination): It is the correction of self-error or removal of the low image
through the pursuit of limitless or Moksha.
- Vairaagya (Dispassion): This is to consider all other pursuits such as money, family,
education etc. as secondary and the pursuit of limitlessness or moksha as primary in life.
It is the capacity to see the means as means. Seeing means as ends is passion and not
seeing means as means is foolishness.
- Satkasampathihi (Six fold disciplines): The six fold disciplines that are popular in
- Samaha: Mind control
- Damaha: Sense control
- Uparamaha: Reduction of extrovertedness through withdrawal.
- Titiksha: Forbearance or capacity to ignore discomforts in life.
- Sradhaa: Faith in Guru, Scriptures and God and
- Samaadhaanam: Commitment to the goal.
- Mumukshutvam (Desire for freedom from bondage or moksha)
- Vishayaha (Subject matter): Brahman is the subject matter. In a way it is not a new
subject because it is always evident. However, the revelation of the status of the
listener as Brahman is new.
- Prayojanam (The result): The utility of the enquiry is to negate the Non-Brahman status
of the Adhikaari, the self. In other words, it is the negation of the Jiva status of the
self which is also called as Moksha.
- Sambandhaha (Relationship): It is the relationship between the text book and the subject
matter. Since Brahman is discussed as the central theme in this text, there is a revealer
revealed relationship between the subject matter Brahman and the text Brahmasutras.
The above four Anubandha Chatustayams are not directly stated but are implied in the
first sutra. The direct meaning of the first sutra "Athaato Brahma Jijnaasaa" is
as follows: "Thereafter, therefore Brahman enquiry should be done".
The detailed discussion on this sutra will be presented in the next session - watch this space!